FOOD GLOSSARY - Flour to Forcemeat

FLOUR (The recipe term):  To coat food or pans with a thin film of flour. "Dust with flour" refers to this coating of cake pans, and to meats before browning.

FLOUR (The ingredient):  Flour should be bought according to the purpose for which it is to be used and the storage available.

All-Purpose Flour: This flour, often referred to as enriched flour, family flour, general-purpose flour, is the kind customarily used. It is suitable for most home baking. In northern United States, it is made from a blend of hard wheats. In southern states, a blend of soft wheats is used.

Cake Flour: This is made of soft wheats. It has a low protein content and makes a more tender product than all-purpose flour. It is used for fine cakes.

Self-Rising Flour: This is an all-purpose flour to which a leavening agent and salt have been added. Using it for home baking saves time, but recipes have to be changed to omit salt and baking powder called for in them. For best results, follow the manufacturer's directions.

Other Flours: Rye, buckwheat, potato, rice, barley, whole wheat (or graham), corn, cottonseed, lima bean, peanut and soy flours are also available for special purposes. They are usually used in combination with wheat flour because, with the exception of rye, they lack gluten-forming proteins. Rye flour produces gluten of low elasticity. Bread flours and pastry flours are used principally by commercial bakers.

FLUFF:  A combination of stiffly beaten egg whites, sugar, and fruit pulp; may be either cooked or uncooked. Also called whip, snow, souffle, foam, and syllabub.

FLUMMERY:  Various fancy custard desserts or a dessert made of: oatmeal or rice with milk and flavorings.

FOIE (French):  Liver; foie gras: fat goose liver; foie de veau: calves' liver. See Pate de Foie Gras.

FOLD IN:  To combine ingredients with a large spoon, a whisk, fork, or rubber scraper. The folding-in motion goes gently down, across, up and over, that is, you cut down through the mixture, the tool slides across the bottom of the bowl, and you bring it up and over the top close to the surface. The advantage of this easy action is that you prevent the loss of air when you are adding ingredients to a delicate food or mixture, or you are putting light ingredients like whipped cream or egg whites into heavier ones.

FOND (French):  Bottom; the bottom of the French artichoke, often sold in cans or jars.

FONDANT:  Candy used as centers for bon bons and chocolates, coating for nuts, as base for mints and patties. There are two kinds, one a cooked mixture of sugar and water, the other uncooked confectioners' sugar, butter, and milk or water.

FONDUE (French):  A French term from the Latin "fondere, to melt or pour. It refers to (1) a cheese dish something like Welsh Rabbit, often thickened with bread or cracker crumbs and (2) a baked souffle made with cheese and crumbs.

FOOL, FRUIT:  A fool is an old-time American dish, usually consisting of stewed strained fruits, sweet cream, chilled.

FORCEMEAT:  Also called stuffing or dressing; a mixture of minced meat and seasonings used as a stuffing.

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