FOOD GLOSSARY - Durian to Egg Whites Beaten Stiff

DURIAN:  A large (coconut-sized) fruit which grows in the East Indies and Malay States. It is seldom seen in our markets. It has a spiny outer husk and highly flavored, cream-colored pulp in which are embedded several seeds that resemble chestnuts. These may be roasted. The unripe fruit often is cooked and served as a vegetable. It has an odor considered offensive to those who come in contact with it for the first time; however, persons who are able to overcome that feature say that it is delicious.

DUST:  To sprinkle with flour or sugar.

DUTCH APPLE CAKE:  A form of sweet bread, usually a biscuit or shortcake dough, baked in a flat sheet with tart, wedge-shaped slices of apple arranged in regular rows on the top and spread with sugar and cinnamon.

DUTCH OVEN:  A deep, heavy cooking utensil with a close-fitting cover. It is sometimes equipped with a trivet or rack, and may be with or without a bail or side handles. It is used for stewing meats or cooking food that requires time and low heat. The capacity of a Dutch oven is stated in quarts.

DUXCELLES OR D'UXELLES:  Named after a famous French gourmet, this is a flavoring used in preparing brown sauces. It consists of finely chopped fresh mushrooms and shallot or onions, sauteed in butter, and seasoned with chopped parsley. and salt, and sometimes with various herbs.

ÉCLAIR (French):  A puffy pastry shell filled with cream filling or whipped cream, usually chocolate frosted, made of a cream puff mixture but shaped long instead of round.

EGGS:  Eggs, Separated: It is easier to separate eggs when they are still chilled, just after being taken from the refrigerator. Crack each egg by striking it at middle against edge of bowl or with cutting edge of knife. Then, holding egg over bowl, insert thumb in crack and pull shell apart. (Yolk settles to bottom half and most of white flows out.) Carefully turn yolk into other half of shell, letting remaining white drop into bowl (repeat if necessary); drop yolk into second bowl.

Eggs, Beaten:  Whole eggs whipped until whites and yolks are well blended. They're used principally to give light texture to batters and dough, and also as a binder in these products and in salad dressings.

Eggs, Slightly Beaten:  Whole eggs beaten just enough to blend yolks and whites. This is enough beating when you are using them to thicken foods like custard. If you're using eggs with crumbs to coat foods before deep-fat frying, beat them only slightly.

Eggs, Well Beaten:  Whole eggs beaten until whites and yolks are well blended and look light and frothy. They are beaten to this stage for use in many baked products.

Egg Yolks, Well Beaten:  Egg yolks beaten until thick and lemon-colored. This is important in producing fine texture in sponge cakes.

Egg Whites, Beaten Stiff:  Egg whites beaten until they stand in peaks when beater is lifted from surface, with points of peaks drooping over a bit and surface still moist and glossy. In this stage, they hold air which expands when heated. If you don't beat the egg whites enough, they won't hold enough air; if you beat them too stiff, the foam will break down when the other ingredients are added. When you add sugar to beaten egg whites in small amounts, the air-holding property of the egg whites is increased. Angel cake is leavened by the expansion of air held in the egg whites and by steam during baking.

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